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Addiction (14)

Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences.[7] It can be thought of as a disease or biological process leading to such behaviors.[1][8] The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., something perceived as being positive or desirable).[1][3][6]

Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc.).[1][9][10] ΔFosB, a gene transcription factor, is a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions;[9][10][11][12] two decades of research into ΔFosB's role in addiction have demonstrated that addiction arises, and addictive behavior intensifies or attenuates, along with the genetic overexpression of ΔFosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens;[1][9][10][11] due to the causal relationship between ΔFosB expression and addictions, it is used preclinically as an addiction biomarker.[1][9][11] ΔFosB expression in these neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement, while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.[note 1][1][9]

Addiction exacts a high toll on individuals and society as a whole through the direct adverse effects of drugs, associated healthcare costs, long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer with smoking tobacco, liver cirrhosis with drinking alcohol, or meth mouth from intravenous methamphetamine), the functional consequences of altered neural plasticity in the brain, and the consequent loss of productivity.[13][14] Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, and continued use despite consequences.[15] Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs).[16]

Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include: alcoholism, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opiate addiction, exercise addiction, food addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. The only behavioral addiction recognized by the DSM-5 is gambling addiction. The term addiction is misused frequently to refer to other compulsive behaviors or disorders, particularly dependence, in news media.[17]


Beauty (34)

Beauty is the quality of being pleasing, especially to look at, or someone or something that gives great pleasure, especially when looking at it.[1]

The conception for beauty is used or studied in art, sociology, social psychology, and culture. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture, for perfection.

The experience of "beauty" often involves an interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because this can be a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder."[1]

There is evidence that perceptions of beauty are evolutionarily determined, that things, aspects of people and landscapes considered beautiful are typically found in situations likely to give enhanced survival of the perceiving human's genes.[2][3]


Dental Health (11)
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems, most commonly, dental cavities, gingivitis, periodontal (gum) diseases and bad breath.[1] There are also oral pathologic conditions in which good oral hygiene is required for healing and regeneration of the oral tissues. These conditions include gingivitis, periodontitis, and dental trauma,[2] such as subluxation,[3] oral cysts,[4] and following wisdom tooth extraction.
Dietary Supplements (0)

A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

Supplements as generally understood include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products.

There are more than 50,000 dietary supplements available. More than half of the U.S. adult population (53% - 55%) consume dietary supplements with most common ones being multivitamins.[1][2]

These products are not intended to prevent or treat any disease and in some circumstances are dangerous, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health. For those who fail to consume a balanced diet, the agency says that certain supplements "may have value."[3]

Most supplements should be avoided, and usually people should not eat micronutrients except people with clearly shown deficiency.[4] Those people should first consult a doctor.[5] An exception is vitamin D, which is recommended in Nordic countries[6] due to weak sunlight.


Diets & Weight Loss (7)

Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight. Dieting is often used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight, commonly in those who are overweight or obese. Some people, however, follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight.

Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, very low calorie and more recently flexible dieting.[1] A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies.[1] At two years, all calorie-reduced diet types cause equal weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized.[2] In general, the best diet is one where you find a way to eat fewer calories in any way that you can.[3]

A study published in American Psychologist found that short-term dieting involving "severe restriction of calorie intake" does not lead to "sustained improvements in weight and health for the majority of individuals".[4] Other studies have found that the average individual maintains some weight loss after dieting.[5] Weight loss by dieting, while of benefit to those classified as unhealthy, may slightly increase the mortality rate for individuals who are otherwise healthy.[6][7][8]

The first popular diet was "Banting", named after William Banting. In his 1863 pamphlet, Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, he outlined the details of a particular low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that had led to his own dramatic weight loss.[9]


 

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Beer and More To Your Door - Liquor Delivery Victoria - Restaurant Delivery Victoria
Victoria BC Restaurant Delivery Guide
Victoria Liquor Store Directory - Victoria BC
Attractions In Victoria BC
Registration - Liquor Delivery Discounts & E-mail Liquor Discount Coupons
Contact Liquor Delivery Victoria BC
Grocery Delivery Victoria BC
Order Online - Liquor Delivery - Restaurant Delivery - Grocery Delivery
Maude Hunters Express Lunch Delivery
Restaurant Delivery Victoria Online Order Page
Best places to eat/restaurants in Victoria BC
Victoria BC History & Facts
guestbook online
Top 10 Victoria BC Attractions And Shopping Guide
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars Page 2
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars Page 3
Liquor Delivery Victoria Video Page
VICTORIA COMMUNITY FREE BOARD - LIST EVENTS - BUY/SELL - JOBS - CLASSIFIEDS -
PARKS IN VICTORIA BC - WHERE TO CHILL OR MEET UP WITH FRIENDS
Vancouver Island Local Beers - Beers local to Victoria & Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island Local Beers - Beers local to Victoria & Vancouver Island PAGE 2
Vancouver Island Local Brew Page 3
Vancouver Island Local Beers, page 4
Vancouver Island Local Brewers page 5
ALL Vancouver Island Winerys, Beer tours for him, and wine tastings for her :)
Flower and Flowers In Victoria, florist shops for flower delivery victoria bc
2015 Music Festivals BC
Baby Delivery - moms guide
SHOP TOP SELLING PRODUCTS IN WORLD
Bargain Shop Till You Drop
GLOBAL WARMING, OCEAN ACIDIFICATION, NUCLEAR FALLOUT