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Careers, Industries & Professions (18)

Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". In this definition career is understood to relate to a range of aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Career is also frequently understood to relate to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in career woman. A third way in which the term career is used to describe an occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education,[1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework.[2] In this case "a career" is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector e.g. "a career in law" or "a career in the building trade".

The etymology of the term comes from the French word carriere (16 c.) ("road, racecourse") which, in turn, comes from the Latin word "(via) cararia" (track for wheeled vehicles) which originated from the Latin word carrus" which means "wagon".[citation needed]


Commodities (4)

In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs.[1] Economic commodities comprise goods and services.[2]

The term commodity is specifically used for an economic good or service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market.[3] In other words, a commodity good or service has full or partial but substantial fungibility; that is, the market treats its instances as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. As the saying goes, "From the taste of wheat, it is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf, a French peasant or an English capitalist."[4] Petroleum and copper are other examples of such commodities,[5] their supply and demand being a part of one universal market. Items such as stereo systems, on the other hand, have many aspects of product differentiation, such as the brand, the user interface and the perceived quality. The demand for one type of stereo may be much larger than demand for another.

In contrast, one of the characteristics of a commodity good is that its price is determined as a function of its market as a whole. Well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. Generally, these are basic resources and agricultural products such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, salt, sugar, tea, coffee beans, soybeans, aluminum, copper, rice, wheat, gold, silver, palladium, and platinum. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining.

There is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, gas, coal and oil. Electricity has the particular characteristic that it is usually uneconomical to store; hence, electricity must be consumed as soon as it is produced.

Commoditization occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, often by the diffusion of the intellectual capital necessary to acquire or produce it efficiently. As such, goods that formerly carried premium margins for market participants have become commodities, such as generic pharmaceuticals and DRAM chips. An article in The New York Times also discusses multivitamin supplements as an example of commoditization; a 50 mg tablet of calcium is of equal value to a consumer no matter what company produces and markets it, and as such, multivitamins are now sold in bulk and are available at any supermarket with little brand differentiation.[6] Following this trend, nanomaterials are emerging from carrying premium profit margins for market participants to a status of commodification.[7]

There is a spectrum of commoditization, rather than a binary distinction of "commodity versus differentiable product". Few products have complete undifferentiability and hence fungibility; even electricity can be differentiated in the market based on its method of generation (e.g., fossil fuel, wind, solar), in markets where energy choice lets a buyer opt (and pay more) for renewable methods if desired. Many products' degree of commoditization depends on the buyer's mentality and means. For example, milk, eggs, and notebook paper are not differentiated by many customers; for them, the product is fungible and lowest price is the main decisive factor in the purchasing choice. Other customers take into consideration other factors besides price, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. To these customers, distinctions such as "organic versus not" or "cage free versus not" count toward differentiating brands of milk or eggs, and percentage of recycled content or Forest Stewardship Council certification count toward differentiating brands of notebook paper.


debt (5)
A debt generally refers to something owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. Debt is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest.[1] The term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value.[2]
Derivatives (13)
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often called the "underlying".[1][2] Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including insuring against price movements (hedging), increasing exposure to price movements for speculation or getting access to otherwise hard-to-trade assets or markets.[3] Some of the more common derivatives include forwards, futures, options, swaps, and variations of these such as synthetic collateralized debt obligations and credit default swaps. Most derivatives are traded over-the-counter (off-exchange) or on an exchange such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, while most insurance contracts have developed into a separate industry. Derivatives are one of the three main categories of financial instruments, the other two being stocks (i.e., equities or shares) and debt (i.e., bonds and mortgages).
economics (6)

Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία from οἶκος (oikos, "house") and νόμος (nomos, "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the house (hold for good management)".[1] 'Political economy' was the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science" to establish itself as a separate discipline outside of political science and other social sciences.[2]

Economics focuses on the behavior and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Consistent with this focus, primary textbooks often distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behavior of basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labor, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies).

Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is," and normative economics, advocating "what ought to be"; between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and behavioral economics; and between mainstream economics (more "orthodox" and dealing with the "rationality-individualism-equilibrium nexus") and heterodox economics (more "radical" and dealing with the "institutions-history-social structure nexus").[3][4]

Besides the traditional concern in production, distribution, and consumption in an economy, economic analysis may be applied throughout society, as in business, finance, health care, and government. Economic analyses may also be applied to such diverse subjects as crime,[5] education,[6] the family, law, politics, religion,[7] social institutions, war,[8] science,[9] and the environment.[10] Education, for example, requires time, effort, and expenses, plus the foregone income and experience, yet these losses can be weighted against future benefits education may bring to the agent or the economy. At the turn of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.[11


Equities & Stocks (116)
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners. It represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders' equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company's creditors.[1]
Foreign Exchange (156)

The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized market for the trading of currencies. In terms of volume of trading, it is by far the largest market in the world.[1] The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centres around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of multiple types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies.[2]

The foreign exchange market works through financial institutions, and it operates on several levels. Behind the scenes banks turn to a smaller number of financial firms known as “dealers,” who are actively involved in large quantities of foreign exchange trading. Most foreign exchange dealers are banks, so this behind-the-scenes market is sometimes called the “interbank market”, although a few insurance companies and other kinds of financial firms are involved. Trades between foreign exchange dealers can be very large, involving hundreds of millions of dollars. Because of the sovereignty issue when involving two currencies, forex has little (if any) supervisory entity regulating its actions.

The foreign exchange market assists international trade and investments by enabling currency conversion. For example, it permits a business in the United States to import goods from European Union member states, especially Eurozone members, and pay Euros, even though its income is in United States dollars. It also supports direct speculation and evaluation relative to the value of currencies, and the carry trade, speculation based on the interest rate differential between two currencies.[3]

In a typical foreign exchange transaction, a party purchases some quantity of one currency by paying with some quantity of another currency. The modern foreign exchange market began forming during the 1970s after three decades of government restrictions on foreign exchange transactions (the Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states after World War II), when countries gradually switched to floating exchange rates from the previous exchange rate regime, which remained fixed as per the Bretton Woods system.

The foreign exchange market is unique because of the following characteristics:

  • its huge trading volume representing the largest asset class in the world leading to high liquidity;
  • its geographical dispersion;
  • its continuous operation: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e., trading from 22:00 GMT on Sunday (Sydney) until 22:00 GMT Friday (New York);
  • the variety of factors that affect exchange rates;
  • the low margins of relative profit compared with other markets of fixed income; and
  • the use of leverage to enhance profit and loss margins and with respect to account size.

As such, it has been referred to as the market closest to the ideal of perfect competition, notwithstanding currency intervention by central banks.

According to the Bank for International Settlements,[4] the preliminary global results from the 2013 Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and OTC Derivatives Markets Activity show that trading in foreign exchange markets averaged $5.3 trillion per day in April 2013. This is up from $4.0 trillion in April 2010 and $3.3 trillion in April 2007. Foreign exchange swaps were the most actively traded instruments in April 2013, at $2.2 trillion per day, followed by spot trading at $2.0 trillion. According to the Bank for International Settlements,[5] as of April 2010, average daily turnover in global foreign exchange markets is estimated at $3.98 trillion, a growth of approximately 20% over the $3.21 trillion daily volume as of April 2007. Some firms specializing on foreign exchange market had put the average daily turnover in excess of US$4 trillion.[6] The $3.98 trillion break-down is as follows:


General Business (31)

A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers.[1] Businesses are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services to customers in exchange for other goods, services, or money. Businesses may also be not-for-profit or state-owned. A business owned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company.

Business can refer to a particular organization or to an entire market sector, e.g. "the music business". Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the word's broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and services. The goal is for sales to be more than expenditures resulting in a profit.


International Business (11)

International business comprises all commercial transactions (private and governmental, sales, investments, logistics, and transportation) that take place between two or more regions, countries and nations beyond their political boundaries. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit; governments undertake them for profit and for political reasons.[1] The term "international business" refers to all those business activities which involve cross-border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transactions of economic resources include capital, skills, people etc. for international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, construction etc.[2]

A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in several countries.Well-known MNEs include fast-food companies such as McDonald's and Yum Brands, vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors, Ford Motor Company and Toyota, consumer-electronics producers like Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell and BP. As show, the multinational enterprises can make business in different types of market. For example, Walmart sells food and clothes (Decarlo and Zajac, 2008).

Areas of study within this topic include differences in legal systems, political systems, economic policy, language, accounting standards, labor standards, living standards, environmental standards, local culture, corporate culture, foreign-exchange market, tariffs, import and export regulations, trade agreements, climate, education and many more topics. Each of these factors may require changes in how individual business units operate from one country to the next.


Management & Leadership (26)

Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill, regarding the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Controversial viewpoints are present in the literature, among Eastern and Western approaches to Leadership, and also within the West, on US vs. European approaches. In US academic environments Leadership is defined as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task".[1] Leadership seen from a European and non-academic perspective encompasses a viewpoint of a Leader that can be moved both by communitarian goals but also by the search for personal power, as the European Research Daniele Trevisani states: "Leadership is a holistic spectrum that can arise from: (1) higher levels of physical power, need to display power and control others, force superiority, ability to generate fear, or group-member's need for a powerful group protector (Primal Leadership), (2) superior mental energies, superior motivational forces, perceivable in communication and behaviors, lack of fear, courage, determination (Psychoenergetic Leadership), (3) higher abilities in managing the overall picture (Macro-Leadership), (4) higher abilities in specialized tasks (Micro-Leadership), (5) higher ability in managing the execution of a task (Project Leadership), and (6) higher level of values, wisdom, and spirituality (Spiritual Leadership), where any Leader derives its Leadership from a unique mix of one or more of the former factors".[2]


marketing & sales (42)

Marketing is about communicating the value of a product, service or brand to customers or consumers for the purpose of promoting or selling that product, service, or brand. The oldest – and perhaps simplest and most natural form of marketing – is 'word of mouth' (WOM) marketing, in which consumers convey their experiences of a product, service or brand in their day-to-day communications with others. These communications can of course be either positive or negative. In recent times, the internet has provided a platform for mass, electronic WOM marketing (e-WOM), with consumers actively engaged in rating and commenting on goods and services.

In for-profit enterprise the main purpose of marketing is to increase product sales and therefore the profits of the company. In the case of nonprofit marketing, the aim is to increase the take-up of the organization's services by its consumers or clients. Governments often employ social marketing to communicate messages with a social purpose, such as a public health or safety message, to citizens. In for-profit enterprise marketing often acts as a support for the sales team by propagating the message and information to the desired target audience.

Marketing techniques include choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer behavior and advertising a product's value to the customer.

From a societal point of view, marketing provides the link between a society's material requirements and its economic patterns of response.

Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through the development of exchange processes and the building of long-term relationships.

Marketing can be considered a marriage of art and applied science (such as behavioural sciences) and makes use of information technology.

Marketing is applied in enterprise and organisations via marketing management techniques.


outsourcing (3)

In business, outsourcing involves the contracting out of a business process to another party (compare business process outsourcing). The concept "outsourcing" came from American Glossary 'outside resourcing' and it dates back to at least 1981.[1][2] Outsourcing sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another, but not always.[3] Outsourcing is also the practice of handing over control of public services to for-profit corporations.[4]

Outsourcing can also be viewed as any assistance from an intermediary that is more capable of or familiar with certain practices than us.[who?] It is just a way of seeking for assistance.

Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting,[5] and sometimes includes offshoring (relocating a business function to another country).[6] Financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for outsourcing or offshoring.

The opposite of outsourcing, insourcing, entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, and is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration. However, a business can provide a contract service to another business without necessarily insourcing that business process.

Outsourcing is a very important tool for reducing cost and improving quality.[citation needed] If an organization does one or all its work by itself, its work may affect its production quality. So, an organization must recognize some important areas where it can reduce its costs and maintain high quality in its products and/or services.


Personal Finance Wiki (14)
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit is required to do to obtain, budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events.[1] When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products (checking, savings accounts, credit cards and consumer loans) or investment (stock market, bonds, mutual funds) and insurance (life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance) products or participation and monitoring of individual- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, and income tax management.
real estate (29)

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing."[1]

It is a legal term used in jurisdictions such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, India, Australia, and New Zealand.


Small Biz / Entrepreneurship (97)
Entrepreneurship is the process of starting a business, typically a startup company offering an innovative product, process or service.[1] The entrepreneur perceives an opportunity and often exhibits biases in taking the decision to exploit the opportunity. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities includes design actions to develop a business plan, acquire the human, financial and other required resources, and to be responsible for its success or failure.[2] Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes government programs and services that support entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship resources (e.g., business incubators and seed accelerators), entrepreneurship education and training and financing (e.g., loans, venture capital financing, and grants).
 

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Beer and More To Your Door - Liquor Delivery Victoria - Restaurant Delivery Victoria
Victoria BC Restaurant Delivery Guide
Victoria Liquor Store Directory - Victoria BC
Attractions In Victoria BC
Registration - Liquor Delivery Discounts & E-mail Liquor Discount Coupons
Contact Liquor Delivery Victoria BC
Grocery Delivery Victoria BC
Order Online - Liquor Delivery - Restaurant Delivery - Grocery Delivery
Maude Hunters Express Lunch Delivery
Restaurant Delivery Victoria Online Order Page
Best places to eat/restaurants in Victoria BC
Victoria BC History & Facts
guestbook online
Top 10 Victoria BC Attractions And Shopping Guide
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars Page 2
Victoria Nightlife Clubs Pubs & Bars Page 3
Liquor Delivery Victoria Video Page
VICTORIA COMMUNITY FREE BOARD - LIST EVENTS - BUY/SELL - JOBS - CLASSIFIEDS -
PARKS IN VICTORIA BC - WHERE TO CHILL OR MEET UP WITH FRIENDS
Vancouver Island Local Beers - Beers local to Victoria & Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island Local Beers - Beers local to Victoria & Vancouver Island PAGE 2
Vancouver Island Local Brew Page 3
Vancouver Island Local Beers, page 4
Vancouver Island Local Brewers page 5
ALL Vancouver Island Winerys, Beer tours for him, and wine tastings for her :)
Flower and Flowers In Victoria, florist shops for flower delivery victoria bc
2015 Music Festivals BC
Baby Delivery - moms guide
SHOP TOP SELLING PRODUCTS IN WORLD
Bargain Shop Till You Drop
GLOBAL WARMING, OCEAN ACIDIFICATION, NUCLEAR FALLOUT